UN COMENTARIO SOBRE CIENCIA, TECNOLOGÍA Y SU CONTRIBUCIÓN AL DESARROLLO HUMANO

Fui invitado el 13 de noviembre pasado, a exponer en las VIII Jornadas de Filosofía de la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, para referirme a la ciencia la tecnología y su contribución al desarrollo humano. No me referiré ahora en extenso a lo indicado en tal oportunidad, sino que solo hacer ciertas reflexiones sobre la importancia  de pensar este tema hoy.

 

Es indudable que la ciencia y la tecnología, han contribuido al desarrollo del espíritu humano y la tecnología ha dado, para decirlo en términos generales, calidad de vida a las personas. Ya desde el renacimiento, los hombres trataron de idear una doctrina autónomamente humana, tan amplia como la teología, para no tener justamente que acatar normas y valores que les imponía una autoridad espiritual. La filosofía moderna, por otro lado, empleó todo su orgullo en ser el instrumento de la dirección, explicación y revelación del contenido de la razón. Es así, como el pensamiento de la época moderna, comenzó a construir el edificio de las ciencias. Sin embargo, se hace imperativo hoy, pensar esta ciencia con conciencia ética. Lo que sale de las manos de científicos, debe ser realmente una contribución al desarrollo de la persona, por lo que ésta debe estar en el centro de la reflexión.

 

La ciencia se orienta hacia una verdad particular de la realidad, sin embargo es indispensable que esta sea un medio para la consecución de una verdad trascendente, que de sentido a la existencia humana; y que tenga en el centro de la reflexión, el irrestricto respeto por la naturaleza de la persona. Solo así la ciencia y la tecnología, lograrán transformarse en una contribución al desarrollo humano y no en la historia de Frankenstein.

La ciencia es un saber parcial y particular de la realidad. Una  profundización y especificidad en ésta, determina generalmente su complejidad; y el excesivo optimismo en ellas, puede llegar a formar peligrosos especialistas, con una miope y parcelada visión de la realidad y del hombre: es necesario conocer, para estos fines al hombre en cuerpo y alma. Resultaría iluso reflexionar y plantearse metas de desarrollo científico y tecnológico, desvinculando la parte del todo, centrándose en una particularidad, y con la convicción de quedar eximidos de principios éticos que le guíen. Este desarrollo, debe ser recogido por una filosofía de las ciencias (que reflexiones sobre la ciencia, su sentido y sus límites) con vocación realista y trascendente para una contribución al desarrollo humano. Toda ciencia es directa o indirectamente antropológica; de ahí, que la vida humana no puede quedar sujeta a la pericia o técnicas de terceros, pues no es suyo el derecho de producir o terminar con una vida humana, puesto que ésta, por indefensa o joven que sea, no es una propiedad, sino un don.

Tampoco es a la ciencia, o a la técnica a quienes les corresponde emitir juicios decisivos sobre aspectos absolutamente filosóficos y morales. Éstas, no pueden orientar por sí mismas el sentido de la existencia humana; pues, necesariamente ambas están ordenadas a servir al hombre, y es en éste donde tienen su origen y no al revés -y menos aún entonces- pueden ir en contra de lo más esencial y más suyo del ser humano: su propia vida.

 

Los límites de la ciencia -como saber y conocimiento- están solamente determinados por la capacidad de observación del hombre. Se avanzará tanto como el hombre pueda observar y reflexionar, de manera tal que esta reflexión debe orientarse tomando al hombre como centro de la reflexión, a la realidad como tal y al desarrollo científico y tecnológico para la contribución a la naturaleza humana que busca sentido en el mundo.

 

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